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Gordon Graff

Gordon Graff

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
PO Box 999
Richland, WA 99352


Dr. Graff is active in materials research and development in topics ranging from fundamental science to applied technology development. He was part of a pioneering team studying fundamental mechanisms of heterogeneous nucleation and growth of inorganic materials at tailored organic interfaces (biomimetic processes) and the potential application of this knowledge for industrial thin-film coatings. Also, he was part of a team that developed functionalized mesoporous materials and methods for depositing these unique structures in thin-film form as low k dielectrics for use in the semiconductor industry. Through his research, Dr. Graff has received 22 US patents:

  • 7,198,832 – Method for edge sealing barrier films
  • 6,866,901 – Method for edge sealing barrier films
  • 6,962,671 – Multilayer plastic substrate
  • 6,923,702 – Method of making encapsulated display devices
  • 6,909,230 – Method of making molecularly doped composite polymer material
  • 6,866,901 – Method for edge sealing barrier film
  • 6,858,259 – Plasma enhanced chemical deposition for high and/or low index of refraction of polymers
  • 6,811,829 – Method of making a coating of a microtextured surface
  • 6,656,537 – Plasma enhanced chemical deposition with low vapor pressure compounds
  • 6,623,861 – Multilayer plastic substrates
  • 6,613,395 – Method of making molecularly doped composite polymer material
  • 6,573,652 – Encapsulated display devices
  • 6,570,325 – Environmental barrier material for organic light emitting device and method of making
  • 6,548,912 – Semiconductor passivation using barrier coatings
  • 6,544,600 – Plasma enhanced chemical deposition of conjugated polymer
  • 6,522,067 – Environmental barrier material for organic light emitting device and method of making
  • 6,497,924 – Method of making non-linear optical polymer
  • 6,492,026 – Smoothing and barrier layers on high Tg substrates
  • 6,413,645 – Ultrabarrier substrates
  • 5,766,784 – Thin film and uses
  • 5,697,043 – Method of freeform fabrication by selective gelation of powder suspensions
  • 5,503,771 – Process for suspension of ceramic or metal particles using biologically produced polymers
In addition, Dr. Graff has developed and managed technical teams and groups within Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. In 1998, Dr. Graff formed and managed a PNNL technical group to develop and commercialize novel organic/inorganic multilayer, thin-film structures for use as gas diffusion barriers. The group’s technical expertise and intellectual property development led to the formation of a successful spin-off company (Vitex Systems Incorporated,

For the past 2 years, Dr. Graff has concentrated on the development of novel, multilayer, thin-film structures for use as large-area, flexible neutron detectors. He is also leading a team investigating the use of thin-film deposition/characterization techniques for rapid screening of new radiation detection materials and currently serves as co-lead of the Transformational Materials Science Initiative with Dr. Jun Liu.

Education and Credentials

  • PhD, Materials Science and Engineering, 2003
  • MS, Materials Science and Engineering, 1991
  • BS, Microbiology, 1981

Affiliations and Professional Service

  • Technical Advisory Committee of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (SVC)
  • Member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • Member of the Society for Information Displays (SID)

Awards and Recognitions

  • 2005 – Distinguished Inventor of Battelle
  • 2002 – Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC) Award, “Ultra-barrier Coatings for Flat Panel Displays”
  • 2000 – R&D 100 Award, “Ultra-barrier Coatings for Flat Panel Displays”
  • 1998 – US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences Materials Science Award for Significant Implication for DOE Related Technologies, “Hybrid Mesoporous Materials with Functionalized Monolayers”
  • 1995 – US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences Materials Science Award for Significant Implication for DOE Related Technologies, “Aqueous Deposition of Ceramics on Plastics and Complex Shapes”

Selected Publications


  • Lu D, J Tao, P Yan, WA Henderson, Q Li, Y Shao, ML Helm, O Borodin, GL Graff, B Polzin, CM Wang, MH Engelhard, J Zhang, JJ De Yoreo, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2017. "Formation of Reversible Solid Electrolyte Interface on Graphite Surface from Concentrated Electrolytes." Nano Letters 17(3):1602-1609.  doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04766


  • Lu D, P Yan, Y Shao, Q Li, SA Ferrara, H Pan, GL Graff, B Polzin, CM Wang, J Zhang, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "High Performance Li-ion Sulfur Batteries Enabled by Intercalation Chemistry." Chemical Communications 51(70):13454-13457.  doi:10.1039/C5CC05171A
  • Lu D, Y Shao, TJ Lozano, WD Bennett, GL Graff, B Polzin, J Zhang, MH Engelhard, NT Saenz, WA Henderson, P Bhattacharya, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "Failure Mechanism of Fast-Charged Lithium Metal Batteries in Liquid Electrolyte." Advanced Energy Materials 5(3):Article No. 1400993.  doi:10.1002/AENM.201400993
  • Wei X, G Xia, BW Kirby, EC Thomsen, B Li, Z Nie, GL Graff, J Liu, VL Sprenkle, and W Wang. 2015. "An Aqueous Redox Flow Battery Based on Neutral Alkali Metal Ferri/ferrocyanide and Polysulfide Electrolytes." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 163(1):A5150-A5153.  doi:10.1149/2.0221601jes
  • Lu D, J Zheng, Q Li, X Xie, SA Ferrara, Z Nie, BL Mehdi, ND Browning, J Zhang, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Xiao. 2015. "High Energy Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Challenges of Thick Sulfur Cathodes." Advanced Energy Materials 5(16):Article No. 1402290.  doi:10.1002/aenm.201402290


  • Ding F, W Xu, X Chen, J Zhang, Y Shao, MH Engelhard, Y Zhang, TA Blake, GL Graff, X Liu, and J Zhang. 2014. "Effects of Cesium Cations in Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118(8):4043-4049.  doi:10.1021/jp4127754
  • Huang C, J Xiao, Y Shao, J Zheng, WD Bennett, D Lu, LV Saraf, MH Engelhard, L Ji, J Zhang, X Li, GL Graff, and J Liu. 2014. "Manipulating the Surface Reactions in Lithium Sulfur Batteries Using Hybrid Anode Structures." Nature Communications 5:Article No. 3015.  doi:10.1038/ncomms4015
  • Viswanathan VV, AJ Crawford, DE Stephenson, S Kim, W Wang, B Li, GW Coffey, EC Thomsen, GL Graff, PJ Balducci, MCW Kintner-Meyer, and VL Sprenkle. 2014. "Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 247:1040-1051.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.12.023
  • Xiao J, P Meduri, H Chen, Z Wang, F Gao, JZ Hu, J Feng, MY Hu, S Dai, S Brown, JL Adcock, Z Deng, J Liu, GL Graff, IA Aksay, and J Zhang. 2014. "Energetics of Defects on Graphene through Fluorination." ChemSusChem 7(5):1295-1300.  doi:10.1002/cssc.201301066


  • Wang W, D Choi, and Z Yang. 2013. "Li-Ion Battery with LiFePO4 Cathode and Li4Ti5O12 Anode for Stationary Energy Storage." Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science 44A(1 Supplement):21-25.  doi:10.1007/s11661-012-1284-4
  • Ding F, W Xu, GL Graff, J Zhang, ML Sushko, X Chen, Y Shao, MH Engelhard, Z Nie, J Xiao, X Liu, PV Sushko, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2013. "Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism ." Journal of the American Chemical Society 135(11):4450-4456.  doi:10.1021/ja312241y
  • Liu J, J Zhang, Z Yang, JP Lemmon, CH Imhoff, GL Graff, L Li, JZ Hu, CM Wang, J Xiao, G Xia, VV Viswanathan, S Baskaran, VL Sprenkle, X Li, Y Shao, and B Schwenzer. 2013. "Materials Science and Materials Chemistry for Large Scale Electrochemical Energy Storage: From Transportation to Electrical Grid." Advanced Functional Materials 23(8):929-946.  doi:10.1002/adfm.201200690


  • Xu W, AL Read, PK Koech, D Hu, CM Wang, J Xiao, AB Padmaperuma, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2012. "Factors Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based Organic Cathode Materials." Journal of Materials Chemistry 22(9):4032-4039.  doi:10.1039/c2jm15764k
  • Zheng J, J Xiao, X Yu, L Kovarik, M Gu, F Omenya, X Chen, XQ Yang, J Liu, GL Graff, MS Whittingham, and J Zhang. 2012. "Enhanced Li+ ion transport in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 through Control of Site Disorder." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 14(39):13515-13521. 
  • Chen X, X Li, F Ding, W Xu, J Xiao, Y Cao, P Meduri, J Liu, GL Graff, and J Zhang. 2012. "Conductive Rigid Skeleton Supported Silicon as High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes." Nano Letters 12(8):41244130.  doi:10.1021/nl301657y
  • Vijayakumar M, B Schwenzer, S Kim, Z Yang, S Thevuthasan, J Liu, GL Graff, and JZ Hu. 2012. "Investigation of Local Environments in Nafion-SiO2 Composite Membranes used in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 42:71-80.  doi:10.1016/j.ssnmr.2011.11.005
  • Xiao J, X Chen, PV Sushko, ML Sushko, L Kovarik, J Feng, Z Deng, J Zheng, GL Graff, Z Nie, D Choi, J Liu, J Zhang, and MS Whittingham. 2012. "High-Performance LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Spinel Controlled by Mn3+ Concentration and Site Disorder." Advanced Materials 24(16):2109-2116.  doi:10.1002/adma.201104767
  • Zhang J, W Wang, J Xiao, W Xu, GL Graff, Z Yang, D Choi, X Li, D Wang, and J Liu. 2012. "Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries." In Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology.  Springer, New York, NY. 


  • Vijayakumar M, SN Kerisit, KM Rosso, SD Burton, JA Sears, Jr, Z Yang, GL Graff, J Liu, and JZ Hu. 2011. "Lithium Diffusion in Li4Ti5O12 at High Temperatures." Journal of Power Sources 196(4):2211-2220. 
  • Choi D, J Xiao, YJ Choi, JS Hardy, M Vijayakumar, MS Bhuvaneswari, J Liu, W Xu, W Wang, Z Yang, GL Graff, and J Zhang. 2011. "Thermal Stability and Phase Transformation of Electrochemically Charged/Discharged LiMnPO4 Cathode for Li-Ion Battery." Energy & Environmental Science 4(11):4560-4566.  doi:10.1039/C1EE01501J
  • Li L, S Kim, W Wang, M Vijayakumar, Z Nie, B Chen, J Zhang, G Xia, JZ Hu, GL Graff, J Liu, and Z Yang. 2011. "A Stable Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery with High Energy Density for Large-scale Energy Storage." Advanced Energy Materials 1(3):394-400. 
  • Vijayakumar M, L Li, GL Graff, J Liu, H Zhang, Z Yang, and JZ Hu. 2011. "Towards Understanding the Poor Thermal Stability of V5+ Electrolyte Solution in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Power Sources 196(7):3669-3672.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.11.126
  • Vijayakumar M, BM Sivakumar, P Nachimuthu, B Schwenzer, S Kim, Z Yang, J Liu, GL Graff, S Thevuthasan, and JZ Hu. 2011. "Spectroscopic Investigations of the Fouling Process on Nafion Membranes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries." Journal of Membrane Science 366(1-2):325-334.  doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2010.10.018
  • Wang D, J Xiao, W Xu, Z Nie, CM Wang, GL Graff, and J Zhang. 2011. "Preparation and electrochemical investigation of Li2CoPO4F cathode material for lithium-ion batteries." Journal of Power Sources 196(4):2241-2245.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.10.021
  • Xiao J, D Mei, X Li, W Xu, D Wang, GL Graff, WD Bennett, Z Nie, LV Saraf, IA Aksay, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Hierarchically Porous Graphene as a Lithium-Air Battery Electrode." Nano Letters 11(11):5071-5078.  doi:10.1021/nl203332e
  • Xiao J, JZ Hu, D Wang, D Hu, W Xu, GL Graff, Z Nie, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2011. "Investigation of the Rechargeability of Li-O2 Batteries in Non-aqueous Electrolyte." Journal of Power Sources 196(13):5674-5678. 
  • Xiao J, N Chernova, S Upreti, X Chen, Z Li, Z Deng, D Choi, W Xu, Z Nie, GL Graff, J Liu, MS Whittingham, and J Zhang. 2011. "Electrochemical Performances of LiMnPO4 Synthesized from Non-Stoichiometric Li/Mn Ratio." Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. PCCP 13(40):18099-18106.  doi:10.1039/C1CP22658D


  • Choi D, D Wang, IT Bae, J Xiao, Z Nie, W Wang, VV Viswanathan, YJ Lee, J Zhang, GL Graff, Z Yang, and J Liu. 2010. "LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon for Li-ion Battery Cathode." Nano Letters 10(8):27992805.  doi:10.1021/nl1007085
  • Matson DW, GL Graff, JL Male, BR Johnson, Z Nie, AG Joly, and LC Olsen. 2010. "Synthesis and Screening of Thin Films in the CeCl3-CeBr3 System for Scintillator Applications." Thin Solid Films 518(12):3194-3198.  doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2009.09.015
  • Vijayakumar M, SD Burton, C Huang, L Li, Z Yang, GL Graff, J Liu, JZ Hu, and M Skyllas-Kazacos. 2010. "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies on Vanadium(IV) Electrolyte Solutions for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery ." Journal of Power Sources 195(22 SP ISS):7709-7717. 
  • Wang D, R Kou, D Choi, Z Yang, Z Nie, J Li, LV Saraf, D Hu, J Zhang, GL Graff, J Liu, MA Pope, and IA Aksay. 2010. "Ternary Self-Assembly of Ordered Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites for Electrochemical Energy Storage ." ACS Nano 4(3):15871595.  doi:10.1021/nn901819n
  • Xiao J, W Xu, D Wang, D Choi, W Wang, X Li, GL Graff, J Liu, and J Zhang. 2010. "Stabilization of Silicon Anode for Li-Ion Batteries ." Journal of the Electrochemical Society 157(10):A1047-A1051.  doi:10.1149/1.3464767
  • Zhang J, J Liu, D Wang, D Choi, LS Fifield, CM Wang, G Xia, Z Nie, Z Yang, LR Pederson, and GL Graff. 2010. "Vapor-Induced Solid-Liquid-Solid Process for Silicon-based Nanowire Growth." Journal of Power Sources 195(6 SP ISS):1691-1697. 


  • Vijayakumar M, SN Kerisit, Z Yang, GL Graff, J Liu, JA Sears, Jr, SD Burton, KM Rosso, and JZ Hu. 2009. "A Combined 6,7Li NMR and Molecular Dynamics Study of Li Diffusion in Li2TiO3." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113(46):20108-20116.  doi:10.1021/jp9072125
  • Choi D, D Wang, VV Viswanathan, IT Bae, W Wang, Z Nie, J Zhang, GL Graff, J Liu, Z Yang, and TQ Duong. 2009. "Li-Ion Batteries from LiFePO4 Cathode and Anatase/Graphene Composite Anode for Stationary Energy Storage." Electrochemistry Communications 12(3):378-381.  doi:10.1016/j.elecom.2009.12.039
  • Vijayakumar M, SN Kerisit, CM Wang, Z Nie, KM Rosso, Z Yang, GL Graff, J Liu, and JZ Hu. 2009. "Effect of Chemical Lithium Intercalation into Rutile TiO2 Nanorods." Journal of Physical Chemistry C 113(32):14567-14574.  doi:10.1021/jp904148z
  • Yang Z, D Choi, SN Kerisit, KM Rosso, D Wang, J Zhang, GL Graff, and J Liu. 2009. "Nanostructures and Lithium Electrochemical Reactivity of Lithium Titanites and Titanium Oxides: A Review." Journal of Power Sources 192(2):588-598.  doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.02.038


  • Liu J, GH Cao, Z Yang, D Wang, DL DuBois, XD Zhou, GL Graff, LR Pederson, and J Zhang. 2008. "Oriented Nanostructures for Energy Conversion and Storage." ChemSusChem 1(8-9):676-697. 
  • Olsen LC, ME Gross, GL Graff, SN Kundu, X Chu, and S Lin. 2008. "Approaches to Encapsulation of Flexible CIGS Cells." In Proceedings of the SPIE: Reliability of Photovoltaic Cells, Modules, Components, and Systems , vol. 7018, ed. NG Dhere, p. Paper No. 70480O.  SPIE , Bellingham, WA.  doi:10.1117/12.796104


  • Graff GL, PE Burrows, RE Williford, and RF Praino. 2005. "Barrier layer technology for flexible displays." Chapter 4 in Flexible flat panel displays.  John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ. 
  • Matson DW, PM Martin, GL Graff, ME Gross, PE Burrows, WD Bennett, MG Hall, ES Mast, CC Bonham, MR Zumhoff, NM Rutherford, L Moro, M Rosenblum, RF Praino, and RJ Visser. 2005. "Adhesion Issues with Polymer/Oxide Barrier Coatings on Organic Displays." In Adhesion Aspects of Thin Films, vol. 2, ed. KL Mittal, pp. 91-102.  VSP , Utrecht, Netherlands. 


  • Graff GL, RE Williford, and PE Burrows. 2004. "Mechanisms of Vapor Permeation Through Multilayer Barrier Films: Lag Time Versus Equilibrium Permeation." Journal of Applied Physics 96(4):1840-1849. 


  • Martin PM, GL Graff, ME Gross, PE Burrows, WD Bennett, ES Mast, MG Hall, CC Bonham, MR Zumhoff, and RE Williford. 2003. "Micro- and Nanostructured Materials for Active Devices and Molecular Electronics." In 46th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, pp. 287-291.  Society of Vacuum Coaters, San Francisco, CA. 


  • Weaver M, L Michalski, K Rajan, MA Rothman, JA Silvernail, JJ Brown, PE Burrows, GL Graff, ME Gross, PM Martin, MG Hall, ES Mast, CC Bonham, WD Bennett, and MR Zumhoff. 2002. "Organic Light-Emitting Devices with Extended Operating Lifetimes on Plastic Substrates." Applied Physics Letters 81(16):2929-2931. 


  • Burrows PE, GL Graff, ME Gross, PM Martin, MK Shi, MG Hall, ES Mast, CC Bonham, WD Bennett, and MB Sullivan. 2001. "Ultrabarrier Flexible Substrates for Flat Panel Displays." Displays 22(2):65-69. 
  • Weaver MS, JJ Brown, RH Hewitt, SY Mao, L Michalski, T Ngo, K Rajan, MA Rothman, JA Silvernail, WD Bennett, CC Bonham, PE Burrows, GL Graff, ME Gross, MG Hall, ES Mast, and PM Martin. 2001. "Flexible Organic LEDs." Information Display 17(5-6):26-29. 


  • Burrows PE, GL Graff, ME Gross, PM Martin, MG Hall, ES Mast, CC Bonham, WD Bennett, L Michalski, M Weaver, JJ Brown, D Fogarty, and LS Sapochak. 2000. "Gas Permeation and Lifetime Tests on Polymer-Based Barrier Coatings." In Organic Light-Emitting Materials and Devices IV, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 4105, ed. Zakya H. Kafafi, pp. 75-83.  SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA. 
  • Graff GL, ME Gross, MG Hall, ES Mast, CC Bonham, PM Martin, MK Shi, J Brown, J Mahon, P Burrows, and M Sullivan. 2000. "Fabrication of OLED Devices on Engineered Plastic Substrates ." In 43rd Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, denver April 15-20, 2000, pp. 397- 400.  Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, NM. 
  • Martin PM, WD Bennett, GL Graff, ME Gross, and DC Stewart. 2000. "Large Area Optical Coatings." Vacuum Technology & Coating September:46-52. 
  • Martin PM, GL Graff, WD Bennett, JW Johnson, ME Gross, and DC Stewart. 2000. "Vapor Deposited Multifunctional Optical Coatings." In Recent Research Developments in Vacuum Science & Technology, vol. 2 Part 1, pp. 113-132.  Transworld Research Network, Kerala, , INDIA. 
  • Shi MK, GC Dunham, ME Gross, GL Graff, and PM Martin. 2000. "Plasma Treatment of PET and Acrylic Coating Surfaces: I. In-situ XPS Measurements." Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 14(120):1485-1498. 
  • Shi MK, GL Graff, ME Gross, and PM Martin. 2000. "In situ and Real-Time Monitoring of Plasma-Induced Etching of PET and Acrylic Films." Plasmas and Polymers 4(4):247-258. 


  • Affinito JD, ME Gross, PA Mounier, MK Shi, and GL Graff. 1999. "Ultrahigh rate, wide area, plasma polymerized films from high molecular weight/low vapor pressure liquid or solid monomer precursors." Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A--Vacuum, Surfaces and Films 17(4):1974-1981. 
  • Affinito JD, GL Graff, MK Shi, ME Gross, PA Mounier, and MG Hall. 1999. "A New Hybird Deposition Process, Combining PML and PECVD, for High Rate Plasma Polymerization of Low Vapor Pressure and Solid, Monomer Precursors." In PROCEEDINGS OF THE 42nd ANNUAL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE- SOCIETY OF VACUUM COATERS , pp. 102-107.  Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, NM. 
  • Shi MK, GL Graff, JD Affinito, ME Gross, G Dunham, PA Mounier, and M Hall. 1999. "Plasma Surface Modification of Acrylic-Based Polymer Multilayer for Enhanced Ag Adhesion." In Society of Vacuum Coaters, 42nd Annual Technical Conference Proceedings: April 17-22, 1999, Chicago, pp. 307-310.  Society of Vacuum Coaters, Albuquerque, NM. 

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